olaf ii haraldsson

A widely used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. But their regency was unpopular, and when Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus ('the Good') laid claim to the Norwegian throne, Svein and Ælfgifu were forced to flee. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. By this time he was also being called Norway's Eternal King. In: DuBois, Thomas A., ed. [18] [9] He stayed for some time in the Swedish province of Nerike, where, according to local legend, he baptised many locals. [b] The nine miracles reported in Glælognskviða form the core of the catalogue of miracles in this office. HRE Ferdinand I's 14-Great Grandfather. Its altarpiece contains a painting of the saint, shown as a martyr king defeating a dragon, representing victory over his pagan past. Olaf’s popularity, his church work, and the aura of legend that surrounded his death, which was supposedly accompanied by miracles, led to his canonization in 1031. This may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut.[17]. [12], It is said that Olaf participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011.[13]. Olaf was born in 995, the son of Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and Harald Grenske, great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway. It seems that, like many Scandinavian kings, Olaf used his Christianity to gain more power for the monarchy and centralise control in Norway. This calls for an explanation of the status he gained after his death. Returning to Norway in 1015, Olaf conquered territory that had previously been held by Denmark, Sweden, and the Norwegian earl Haakon of Lade; by 1016 he had consolidated his rule in all Norway. Olaf sündis 995. aastal Harald Grenske peres ning oli Harald Kaunisjuukse lapselapselaps. role of Olaf II. Eysteinn Erlendsson, Archbishop of Nidaros, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Martyr-King Olaf of Norway – A Holy Orthodox Saint of Norway", "St. Olaf, Patron Saint of Norway", St. Olaf Catholic Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 'Fact or folklore: the Viking attack on London Bridge', "Bishop John Willem Nicolaysen Gran, O.C.S.O. Olaf resolved his conflict with the Swedish king Olaf Skötkonung by 1019 and joined forces with the king’s son Anund Jakob when Canute, king of England and Denmark, threatened to conquer Norway. Olaf II Haraldsson (Old Norse: Óláfr Haraldsson) (995 – July 29, 1030) was king of Norway from 1015 to 1028, (known during his lifetime as "the Big" (Óláfr Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf or Olaus). Norway 1020 AD.png 1,134 × 2,002; 337 KB. He was probably the only one of the missionary bishops left in the country at the time of Olaf's death, and he stood behind the translation and beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. It praises Olaf and mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. For various reasons, most importantly the death of King Cnut the Great in 1035 but perhaps also a certain discontent among Norwegian nobles with Danish rule in the years after Olaf's death in 1030, Olaf's illegitimate son with the concubine Alvhild, Magnus the Good, assumed power in Norway, and eventually also in Denmark. The texts used for the liturgical celebration of St. Olaf during most of the Middle Ages were probably compiled or written by Eystein Erlendsson, the second Archbishop of Nidaros (1161–1189). Judging from the bare outlines of known historical facts, he appears to have been a fairly unsuccessful ruler, whose power was based on an alliance with the much more powerful King Cnut the Great; who was driven into exile when he claimed power of his own; and whose attempt at a reconquest was swiftly crushed. [4], The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae Eternal King of Norway) and canonised in Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf 'the fat' or 'the stout' (Ólafr digri; Modern Norwegian Olaf digre). Olaf's local canonization ( The first people honored as saints were the martyrs. Normans were somewhat familiar with the culture of the people they were to convert and in some cases may have been able to understand the language. [6] He was also called Olaf 'The Lawbreaker' for his many brutal ways of converting the Norwegian populace. [a] The cult of Olaf unified the country and consolidated the christianisation of Norway. This is probably why the earliest traces of a liturgical cult of Olaf are found in England. In pagan times, Scandinavian kings derived their right to rule from their claims of descent from the Norse god Odin, or in the case of the kings of the Swedes at Old Uppsala, from Freyr. Saint Olaf ou Olav Haraldson ou Olaf II de Norvège dit le Gros ou le Saint, roi de Norvège de 1015 à 1028, est né vers 995 et mort le 29 juillet 1030. For other uses, see, "Olaf the Stout" redirects here. Miracles performed by St. Olaf appear for the first time in Þórarinn loftunga's skaldic poem Glælognskviða, or "Sea-Calm Poem", from about 1030–34. Entry for 'Olaf ii Haraldsson' - One of 8 Bible encyclopedias freely available, this resource contained over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles written by 1,500 respected authors The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him. [38], Recently the pilgrimage route to Nidaros Cathedral, the site of St. Olaf's tomb, has been reinstated. Harald Grenske died when Åsta Gudbrandsdatter was pregnant with Olaf. But Olaf's success was short-lived. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. In Norway today, he is commonly called Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilage-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. Writing around 1070, Adam of Bremen mentions pilgrimage to St. Olaf's shrine in Nidaros, but this is the only firm trace we have of a cult of St. Olaf in Norway before the mid-12th century. Olaf most likely did try to bring Christianity to the interior of Norway, where it was less prevalent. Olaf annihilated the petty kings of the South, subdued the aristocracy, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, and conducted a successful raid on Denmark. Olaf lost many men but made it back to his boats. Born. This was before the time of the formal canonization process now in use. Only after Norway was made a metropolitan province with its own archbishop in 1153—making the Norwegian church, on the one hand, more independent of its king, but on the other hand, more directly responsible to the Pope—did canon law gain a greater prominence in the life and jurisdiction of the Norwegian church. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Olaf-II-Haraldsson, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Olaf Haraldson. This English cult seems to have been short-lived. Especially during the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride. PM Churchill's 26-Great Grandfather. Corrections? Maud of Wales, daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, was the mother of King Olav V of Norway, so Olav and his son Harald V, the present king of Norway, are descended from Olaf. In Olaf II Haraldsson …and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. Harald Grenske died when Åsta was pregnant with Olaf. In his book The Conversion of Scandinavia, Anders Winroth argues that there was a "long process of assimilation, in which the Scandinavians adopted, one by one and over time, individual Christian practices. In Norway today, he is commonly referred to as Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilag-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. Deceased", "St. Olaf Church, Patron of Norway Catholic Church", "St. Olave's Anglican Church – Beauty and Tradition in Toronto's Bloor West Village", A History of Norway and The Miracles of the Blessed Olafr, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Olaf_II_of_Norway&oldid=994740500, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2017, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Articles with German-language sources (de), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, St. Olave's Anglican Church, Toronto, ON, Canada, The primary school and GAA club in Balally, Dublin, Ireland, both named for St. Olaf, The oldest picture of St. Olaf is painted on a column in the, St Olaf St a secondary street in Lerwick, Shetland, Ekrem, Inger; Lars Boje Mortensen; Karen Skovgaard-Petersen (2000), Langslet, Lars Roar; Ødegård, Knut (2011), This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 08:45. It was founded in 1463 or 1464 by Heinrich Kalteisen at his retirement home, the Dominican Monastery in the Altstadt ("Old City") neighborhood of Koblenz. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. He ordered his ships to depart despite a riding storm. The Passio a miracule beati Olavi, the official record of Olaf's miracles, contains an episode where Olaf helps a man escape from the huldrefolk, the "hidden people" of Norwegian folklore. The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. He is also venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[28]. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds as follows: About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa (Osilia). Omissions? It also led to the naming of St Olave's Grammar School, which was established in 1571 and was in Tooley Street until 1968, when it moved to Orpington, Kent. Canute’s control of the trade routes to the west of Norway, and the prospect of his ruling more indirectly than Olaf had done, won the support of leading Norwegian chieftains. Olaf attempted to reconquer Norway in 1030 with help from Anund Jakob but was defeated by a superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. Olaf was driven into exile in Kievan Rus. What seems clear is that Olaf made efforts to establish a church organization on a broader scale than before, among other things by importing bishops from England, Normandy and Germany, and that he tried to enforce Christianity in the inland areas, which had the least communication with the rest of Europe, and which economically were more strongly based on agriculture, so that the inclination to hold on to the former fertility cult was stronger than in the more diversified and expansive western parts of Norway. She later married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children, including Harald Hardrada, who later reigned as king of Norway. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. He is sometimes called Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: "Norway's Eternal King"), a designation which goes back to the 13th century. Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. As a teenager, he went to the Baltics, Denmark, and England, and wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy on his way home. [8], St. Olaf was born in Ringerike,[9] the son of Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold,[2] whom later Icelandic sagas would describe as a great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, Norway's first king. His presence was even felt in Finland and many travelled from all over the Norse world in order to visit his shrine. Grimketel initiated the beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. He was the Archbishop of Nidaros in Norway from 1452 to 1458. But Grimkell was only a member of Olaf's household and no permanent sees were created until c. 1100. Early depictions of Olaf portray him as clean-shaven, but after 1200 he appears with a red beard, which may have been absorbed from Thor. [37], In the Faroe Islands, the day of St. Olaf's death is celebrated as Ólavsøka, a nation-wide holiday. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. Numerous royal, grand ducal and ducal lines are descended from Ordulf and Wulfhild, including members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was here he converted to Christianity and was baptized at the Notre Dame Cathedral. king of Norway byname Olaf the Quiet , Norwegian Olav Kyrre died 1093, Norway king of Norway (1066–93) who guided the nation through one of its most prosperous periods, maintaining an extended peace rare in medieval Norwegian history.… The icon of the Madonna Nicopeia,[34] presently in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, which is believed to have been traditionally carried into combat by the Byzantine military forces, is believed to have been kept in this chapel in times of peace. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. Canute forced Olaf to flee to Russia (1028), where the Norwegian ruler took refuge with his Swedish wife’s relatives. Thus the kings of Norway promoted the cult of St. Olaf, the kings of Sweden the cult of St. Erik and the kings of Denmark the cult of Saint Canute, just as in England the Norman and Plantagenet kings promoted the cult of St. Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey, their coronation church.[27]. Also, Olaf and Grimkell most likely did not introduce new ecclesiastical laws to Norway; these were ascribed to Olaf at a later date. It has been suggested that it could be in Uusimaa. Modern historians[citation needed] generally agree[citation needed] that Olaf was inclined to violence and brutality, and note that earlier scholars often neglected this side of his character. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [21] The codification of Christianity as the legal religion of Norway was attributed to Olaf, and his legal arrangements for the Church of Norway came to stand so high in the Norwegian people's and clergy's eyes that when Pope Gregory VII attempted to make clerical celibacy binding on the priests of Western Europe in 1074–75, Norwegians largely ignored it, since there was no mention of clerical celibacy in Olaf's legal code for their church. His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first national legislation. Among the bishops Olaf is known to have brought with him from England was Grimkell (Latin: Grimcillus). St. Olaf was also, together with the Mother of God, the patron saint of the chapel of the Varangians, the Scandinavian warriors who served as the bodyguard of the Byzantine emperor. A Pilgrim's Office in Oslo gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the Cathedral, awards certificates to pilgrims when they complete their journeys. Olaf Haraldsson and Olaf Tryggvason are both traditionally regarded as the driving forces behind Norway's final conversion to Christianity. He is sometimes referred to as Rex Perpet… The basilica of Sant'Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso in Rome has a Chapel of St Olav. After fighting the Danes in England, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king. It praises Olaf and mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. [citation needed], Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson. Ta kasvas üles Ringerikes Kagu-Norras. [14][15][16] The journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler, where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. 1177–1188). Olaf has traditionally been seen as leading the Christianisation of Norway, but most scholars of the period now believe that Olaf had little to do with the process.

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